Since the beginning of human cultivation, irrigation has been an integral part of agriculture. It has been around for more than 5,000 years. It was the foundation of economies and societies around the world in the past. It is the controlled application of water using suitable hardware & supplies for agricultural purposes using manmade systems that supply water not provided by rain.
It is used for the cultivation of crops, landscape maintenance, and revegetation in dry areas or when there is not enough rainfall. You can also use it to protect crops from frost, suppress weed growth in grainfields, and prevent soil consolidation.
Crop irrigation is essential to ensure sufficient food for the ever-growing population of the world. There are many different methods of irrigation that are used around the world, including:
Automated sprinkler irrigation using a center pivot. This is achieved by rotating the boom or sprinkler pipe automatically
Drip: A planned irrigation system where water is directly applied to the root zone of plants with applicators
Flood is the application of irrigation water to cover the entire soil surface with ponded water
Furrow: Partially surface flooding method of irrigation that is used with clean-tilled crops. Water is applied in furrows and rows of sufficient capacity.
Sprinkler: A planned irrigation system where water is applied using perforated pipes and nozzles operating under pressure to form spray patterns
Many irrigation systems are designed to maximize efficiency and reduce capital and labor costs. The type and design of the irrigation system will determine which management techniques are most effective. Management can be affected by automation, the control or the capture and use of runoff, soil, and topographical variations as well as the location and flow measurement and water control systems.